Healthy visitors, and tourists, people who travel either for leisure or for business purposes, worldwide, guests and visitors have the right to feel safe and properly treated in the case of an emergency or healthcare problem that may occur during their stay abroad or during a public event.
Though hotel accidents and injuries may occur at a random basis, the need of healthcare interventions during a hotel accommodation period, is of high frequency due to various conditions, which can be result of the following:
- Slip and falls in different areas of the hospitality premises
- Allergic reactions due to bed bugs, or other unsanitary conditions, exposure to toxic chemicals,
air sprays, or other irritative factor
- Food poisoning
- Burns from hot sources, sun burns
- Infections and colds
Hotel management is subject to a very high standard of care when it comes to the safety of the guests. This duty of care extends to all premises including parking lots and garages, hotel-owned shuttle buses, common areas, guest rooms, meeting rooms, pools, fitness centers, restaurants, and more. Managers should ensure that hotel staff takes all possible precautions against any foreseeable harm to guests or other visitors.
«“Foreseeable” means that management is aware or should be aware of the possibility of injury due to certain conditions” Levin injury firm».
Massive gatherings and Events
Massive gatherings and events taking place with vast number of attendants are also considered as critical instances where the combination of potential needs for out -of- hospital medical care, emergency care, disaster and public medical care, provides a challenge which should be effectively met to ensure guests’ health and safety. Wide attendance events require dedicated first aid, medical, and other health-related services at a higher rate than baseline population. There is great variability within and between mass gatherings.
The number of health problems among participants at mass gathering has been proved to be higher than that expected in the comparable size populations. Moreover, it’s been proven that 0.5% to 1.5% of concert goers will require a kind of medical assistance, regardless of the character, locale, physical layout, and size of the concert, moreover in 10% of the patients’ alcohol and drug use is the primary diagnosis. Other common complaints include lacerations, fractures and sprains, burns, sunburn, heat stroke, seizures, asthma, and exposure.
Mass Gathering Medicine at an event often involves periods of extremely high patient volume with variable acuity, usually with limited history available. Care is provided in temporary structures with limited resources. Health care providers are challenged to function without their familiar clinical systems while attempting to maintain a high standard of care, often for large numbers of patients over a variable and sometimes extended period of time.
“”….The cluster of SARS cases at Hotel Metropole in Hong Kong in 2003, the first superspreading event recognized outside mainland China, was responsible for the spread of the epidemic from Guangdong Province to Canada, Vietnam, Singapore, and Hong Kong itself.
All 20 cases were associated with transmission of SARS CoV on the ninth floor of the hotel, where the index case-patient had stayed for 1 night before becoming critically ill and being admitted to a local hospital the next day…..””
“””…………..The increasing demand for health care from tourists is a challenge that especially well known destination countries strive to meet year after year. The seasonal peak coincides with the main summer season, which is more pronounced in coastal areas. Seasonality is thus an important factor in the enterprise of hospitality and accommodation services.
Health care services need to be flexible in their response to the needs of tourists. The main reasons for foreign citizens accessing health services in the region include the sudden alteration in health (70.6% of cases); 9.5% requiring pharmaceuticals; 2.8% for medical treatment or surgery and 1.1% receiving dialysis.
Seaside tourism is marked by large and seasonal concentrations of individuals which affect facilities and services set up to respond to this demand. Each year preparations for the summer season commence in March (a similar practice takes place in the autumn in the run up to the ski season) with the selection of specific health staff able to communicate in various European languages. A number of specific measures are then undertaken.
During the summer season, with the aim of ensuring a prompt response to medical emergencies, ‘Progetto Vacanze Sicure’ (Safe Holidays Project) has been implemented along the entire Veneto coastline, incorporating a number of different initiatives:
- the distribution of semiautomatic defibrillators financed by the regional health service; seven medically-equipped vehicles; three medically-equipped motorcycles and sixteen ambulances (including two water ambulances). An additional helicopter rescue service
- tailored specifically to tourists has been put into operation, representing a further development within the complex system of tried-and-tested emergency services
- available in the Veneto Region. The helicopter health care rescue service ensures
- that there is coverage throughout the Veneto region via four helicopter stations.
Based at the Venice Lido it covers the entire 120 km stretch of Adriatic coastline and is equipped with sea rescue facilities. In the space of ten to fifteen minutes the rescue team, made up of a doctor, nurse and air pilot, are able to reach the individual in danger at the location where the emergency has occurred…..””
“”….Mass gathering events represent a major risk for communicable disease. Current reasons for this are:
– The potential for rapid dissemination of an imported or emerging infectious disease.
– Significant pressure on civil infrastructure (such as hotels and food caterers), which can easily result in poor hygiene standards.
– Difficulty in implementing public health control measures such as contact tracing, in case of an epidemic, due to the multitude of countries and visitors represented at the event.
– Increase severity of air pollution and frequency of climate-related diseases;
– Increased potential for trauma and injury incidents, which are also associated with alcohol consumption.
– The potential deliberate use of biological and chemical agents or radionuclear material…..”
“”…………. During the 2006-2010 study period, 7,089 persons presented to FASs for medical aid during rave parties. Most of the problems (91.1%) were categorized as medical or trauma, and classified as mild. The most common medical complaints were general unwell-being, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Contusions, strains and sprains, wounds, lacerations, and blisters were the most common traumas. A small portion (2.4%) of the emergency aid was classified as moderate (professional medical care required), including two cases (0.03%) that were considered life-threatening. Hospital admission occurred in 2.2% of the patients. Fewer than half of all patients presenting for aid were transported by ambulance. More than a quarter of all cases (27.4%) were related to recreational drugs.
During a five-year field research period at rave dance parties, most presentations on-site for medical evaluation were for mild conditions. A medical team of six healthcare workers for every 10,000 rave party visitors is recommended. On-site medical staff should consist primarily of first aid providers, along with nurses who have event-specific training on advanced life support, event-specific injuries and incidents, health education related to self-care deficits, interventions for psychological distress, infection control, and disaster medicine. Protocols should be available for treating common injuries and other minor medical problems, and for registration, triage, environmental surveillance and catastrophe management and response…..””
- OOSTERHOUT, Tom; VIETEN, Marc; WAAL, Marieke. Patient Care Hotels around the Globe. The Netherlands. 2013. 6p.
- UNITED STATES, Department of State – Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Hotel Security and safety assessment form. United States of America. 2014. 16p.
- HANNA James; Emergency Preparedness Guidelines for Mass. Crowd-Intensive Events. 1994. Ottawa. Minister of Public Works and Government Services.P.55.
- TSOUROS, Agis; EFSTATHIOU, Panos. Mass gatherings and public Health. The experience of the Athens 2004 Olympic games. Denmark. World Health Organization, 2007. 402p.
- CALABRO Joseph; JAVIER Edgardo; REICH Joel, KROHMER John; BALCOMBE Joan. Provision Of Emergency Medical Care For Crowds.1995-96.United States.Emergency Medical Services Committee of the American College of Emergency Physicians.P.29
- BRODIE Sid. Guidelines for concerts. Events and organized gatherings. Western Australia. Environmental Health Directorate. December 2009.P.154